(E). First aid is critical to eliminating permanent damage. In addition to moving the person to a warm and dry area and administering warm beverages, placing warm bottles or hot packs on the groin, in armpits and sides of the chest is also recommended. All wet clothing should also be replaced with dry, warm ones. Call 911 for additional instructions.
Q 2. Explanation
False. Boots with grip soles made of rubber and neoprene composite will work best in snowy conditions and prevent slips and falls. Leather and plastic soles provide poor traction on snow/ice, increasing the chances of slip and fall accidents.
Three. OSHA recommends wearing three layers of clothing to effectively combat potential cold stress conditions. An outer layer made of Gortex® or Nylon is advised to break the wind while leaving ample ventilation. The middle layer provides insulation and absorbs sweat even when wet. Typically, this consists of down or wool material. The innermost layer needs to be a synthetic or cotton weave to allow for ventilation. It is also essential to wear loosely fitted clothes to stay comfortable and ventilated.
Q 4. Explanation
(D) Falling forward will increase the risk of injuries, as will a tense posture. Avoid falling on your face and let your body go loose to help decrease injuries.
(C) When working with snow and falling ice, you must take precautions to prevent any potential mishap. Employers are obligated to provide all possible means of safety like shovels, snow rakes, aerial lifts, PPE, and ladders. Planning ahead by evaluating the roof’s load-bearing capacity is also necessary.
(E) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), types of cold stress include frostbite, trench foot, hypothermia, chilblains and cold- water immersion. It is advisable to avoid prolonged exposure to extreme cold and wet conditions to steer clear of these issues.
(D) Never leaving without your winter kit consisting of emergency supplies is the foremost rule of going out in your vehicle in extreme conditions. Continuous use of a car heater or running the engine to keep warm is not advisable as it burns up the fuel. However, running the engine for few minutes after every hour is recommended as it helps passengers stay warm and keeps the exhaust pipes clear of snow. Clogged pipes can make way for poisonous gases inside the car. Moving hands, legs and head regularly will help stay warm and maintain circulation, reducing odds of cold induced injuries like hypothermia and frostbite.
Q 8. Explanation
(C) It is said that 30-40% of body heat is lost when the head is left exposed. Wear a protective hat to stay warm and retain body heat in cold conditions.
Q 9. Explanation
(E) Sometimes frostbite may go unnoticed. Redness of skin is associated with frostbite but it may not be a definite indication. White, yellow or gray skin, on the other hand, is a sure sign of frostbite due to cold stress. The frostbitten skin is often pale and numb with throbbing pain and stinging.
Q 10. Explanation
(C) A buddy system that lets you work in pairs is a good practice to keep an eye on each other and watch out for any signs of cold stress or accidents in snow. Simple and effective, this method of working keeps the workers comfortable and stress-free about their own safety in harsh conditions.